Wednesday, February 25

Lesotho + South Africa

Rethabile has a post on unification between Lesotho and South Africa. He list a number of condition that he thinks would have to be met for such a unification to be possible.

i/. One country must unite with another on an equal footing. There must not be any talk of one party joining another or becoming part of another (I might have sinned in the past on this point);
ii/. The rapprochement must be gradual, spanning at least two generations. Everything must be debated and debated and planned and planned. Parallels must be drawn with Europe and with other examples (the US, if a federal system is to be employed);
iii/. After the debating and the planning, the setting-up must be an inch-by-inch affair, ie Currency first, then a Common Constitution, etc;
iv/. The advantages must be made plain to both the high-level executive and the veld herdboy. Every head must be made to feel part of the whole (easier said than done, I know);
v/. I've never really sat down to consider how this could practically be done, but I'm sure there a few other points that would have to be respected.

After reading this I've realized what a difficult undertaking this would be.

Firstly South Africa and Lesotho would not be equal partners. Lesotho would always be the junior partner, and in a federal South Africa Lesotho would be pretty junior indeed. Some facts from our ever reliable CIA friends;

GDP: South Africa: $427.7 billion (2002 est.) Lesotho: $5.106 billion (2002 est.)
Population: South Africa:42,768,678 Lesotho: 1,861,959

Lesotho would have to become part of South Africa in any such union. It could be a province, but federal powers are limited to local issues in South Africa and are very limited indeed. Basotho could not have a special veto or say in the running of South Africa, and given the large population differences Basotho would have even less of a political force then Afrikaners, also a relatively small minority.

Federal powers are also not likely to be increased to such a level where they are meaningful any time soon. If anything, provinces are likely to loose even more power in the future as government tries to become more efficient.

Constitutionally Lesotho would have to accept the South African constitution and judicial system. Given that out judicial systems are almost identical I doubt any Basotho would notice the difference. The traditional leaders of the Basotho on the other hand might have a serious problem giving up power, as has been seen in Kwazulu and the Eastern Cape.

Putting it bluntly, South Africa would hardly blink if Lesotho joined the union. For the Basotho it would mean the end of self governance, however mismanaged it has been. Basotho nationalism being what it is, I don't know if this is possible.

The advantages to South Africa would be limited. South Africa already makes use of Basotho labour, without having the expense of them being citizens with all the rights and privileges attached. Buying water from Lesotho is a lot cheaper then providing the infrastructure and investment that Lesotho would deserve as part of South Africa. Lesotho holds all the economic benefits of a bantustan for South Africa, without the political fallout.

The advantages for the Basotho would be becoming South African citizens and being able to integrate economically into South Africa. It would bring in investment, enterprise and money. It would lesson the administrative burden of the Lesotho government considerable. Not having to maintain the apparatus of state would lead to a huge cut in spending, that could go towards development. South Africa would also provide a safety net for Lesotho. Draught as is currently being experienced would not be a national emergency but a case of moving resources around.

The disadvantages would be that once in the union there would be no backing out. Lesotho would be part of South Africa for better or for worse. Lesotho would belong to all South Africans. As the Basotho would be able to go and live anywhere they pleased, South Africans will go to Lesotho, buy property, build mountain cabins and start farms. Are the Basotho ready to have their land bought out from under them?

As I've said before, politically this would only be possible if it was an issue driven by the Basotho themselves. South Africa has little to gain, except perhaps righting a wrong.

Monday, February 23

United we stand?

Hey! Rethabile agrees with me that Lesotho and South Africa should unite. Murray says its unnecessary though.

Exited claims of Racism

A response to Abiolas comments to a previous post.

What struck me from your response was your belief that you can equate your feelings towards Apartheid to that of a jewish person towards Nazi Germany. I can certainly understand this. Seeing the serial number tattooed on your Grandfathers arm as he told you how your people were murdered in the Apartheid Regimes gas chambers must have had an immense affect on you.

You are so right also when you say that the context is unimportant when dealing with such gross inhumanities. How can anyone expect to take seriously arguments that try to mitigate in any way the behaviour of Afrikaners during the last 400 years? It is obvious that they are little more than dogs anyway. (Thanks for that link, by the way.)

Your mission to disprove that Apartheid was in any way a good thing is commendable. Many Afrikaners believe (erroneously) that apartheid was in some ways good for them. Silly people. Your approach of finding and publishing old statistics is certainly a boon to this debate. (Hey, what do you know? Most white people supported the policies implemented by their elected government!). I was also not aware that the Apartheid government was almost as socialist as socialist governments and arguments that communism was a threat is therefore ridicules. It was all just economics after all.

I believe you when you say "The point of all this isn't to say that modern day Afrikaners are dirty pigs". I’m sure that is just a happy coincidence. I also like the way you’re able to jump around from century to century picking out tidbits that prove your point. This is certainly the best method to illustrate the gross inhumanity of Afrikaners.

You’re newest post beautifully proves that yes, Afrikaners were poor. That is amazing proof. I can almost smell them. Your link to pictures of far right Afrikaner organizations was sadly not working. Not being sure who is trying to understate the fact that Afrikaners are racist pigs I'm not sure what they were suppose to prove.

Strangely I have not seen you mention the fact that there was a referendum on ending apartheid. Sorry! Context. I’m new to this and you must forgive me.

As to your questions;
Have you ever stepped foot in a black "township?" Have you ever asked your black fellow citizens what it was like to live under the shadow of BOSS, or to be weighed down by pass laws and petty discrimination? Have you ever spoken to a black person whose relatives were killed by the state security apparatus?

Sadly, I must say that I’ve never done any of these things (Except maybe step into a black township.). But you have moved me to change my ways. When I see one of my fellow black work colleagues again I'll sit him or her down and we'll have a long talk about all those terrible things. I’m sure we'll both agree that Afrikaners are terrible people and that people who argue that Apartheid wasn’t bad are wrong.

Friday, February 20

Google Search: " Africas problem"

Im #7 and rising. Cool!


Abiola at Foreign Dispatches has some very strong views on many issues. I've enjoyed reading his comments, and linked him from the first in this blog. I've also disagreed with him on many issues, but that's par for the course around here.

He has recently focused on South Africa, always an interesting topic, and the negativity that has surrounded the new South Africa. As this was one of my goals when I started this blog, I can only applaud.

However, one of his views apparently is a strong personal dislike of Afrikaners. I can find little other explanation for dragging out British propaganda at the time Afrikaner Woman and Children were interned in British concentration camps to justify his arguments. His arguments, apparently, being that Afrikaners are the root of all evil in Africa and deserve to be punished for their misdeeds.

Blatant racism, or the plane truth? Id respond on his blog, but from reading his comment section debate is not something he seems to regard highly. What do you think?

Thursday, February 19

Reading the Parking Meter

Blogging has been slow and will be for the rest of the week. Meander over to Southern Cross where Andrew and Murray have been on a roll.

Ive also asked Rethabile from On Lesotho if he thinks Lesotho should really be a country. His reply should be interesting.

Monday, February 16

Google Toolbar Installed

Cool! Google Toolbar now comes with convenient "Blog This!" button.

Tuesday, February 10

Defending colonialism

In an earlier post I pointed to a string of posts by Wild at Bleedingbrain on his return to Africa. Mentalacrobatics fisked him on his attitude towards Africa "He crossed the line so many times I had to be harsh."

Wild, not one to avoid hot topics, steps back into the arena with a defence of colonialism. Not wanting to be left out of the fun this time around, I'm responding.

I began thinking about the continent of Africa through history and in doing so, began to re-think the European colonial model that was imposed on Africa.

The problem is Africa is a pretty big place. Its always easy to try to generalize, but here you really cant. The history of Africa is diverse, and the "colonial model" was as well.

I had always believed that the colonization of Africa was an evil thing and that it represented the brutal exploitation of one people by another.

Do you mean exploitation of black people by white people? This has become the defacto image of colonialism. There were however many groups of people involved. It was in fact far from being so clear cut, and example can easily be found across Africa of just about everyone exploiting someone.

Africa's population was organized into small tribal groups that were self-contained administrative and economic entities.

This is a gross oversimplification.

At various times and places there were empires, kingdoms, theocracies, oligarchies, towns, cities and nomads groups so small calling them a tribe would be ridicules. Ethiopia was never colonized. Egypt one of the founding nations of modern civilization. The Zulu kingdom and Afrikaner republics, while defeated and colonized, gave the British Empire at its height a pretty good fight.
The biggest problem was that such small groupings made the Africans very vulnerable to foreign invasions. From every direction, people and companies came to take what they could from Africa. The small groups of people were not organized in ways that could have fended off the invaders. When slavers came to harvest humans for sale, these African societies were utterly defenseless.

This is again an oversimplification of what was happening in some parts of the continent. Slavers usually bought slaves from local people, who made a tidy profit during the days of the slave trade. Africans were also not unable to protect themselves, and slavers did not have a safe or easy job. Some parts of Africa saw no slave trade, even though they traded with Arabian merchants.
When the Europeans divided Africa into colonies, was that a good thing or a bad thing?

Are you really looking for a single answer? The Hareros of Namibia, driven into the desert at the turn of the century by the genocidal Germans, would certainly give a different answer to the people of Botswana next door who enjoyed the cordial protection of the British (from Boer expansion).

You list a number of negatives to colonialism. To these I would like to add
-The losses to public and civic society as organizations such as political parties are not allowed to form.
-The loss of ownership of the land and companies that make up the economies of a country.
-The distortion of the goals of a society, as getting rid of the colonizers becomes the overriding goal of society, to the detriment of everything else.

In your positives you list that colonialism formed nation states that are able to fend of threats from outside. This is not true in many cases. The colonial powers were able to enforce these boundaries with their force of arms, but once they left these illusions evaporated. The Congo is a good example. It is in no way a viable country, and only the arrogance of the smallest country in Europe, Belgium, to own the largest colony in Africa made it so. Africa’s current adherence to colonial borders is not always a boon.

To your positives I would like to add that ‘some’ colonial governments (i.e. the British) started building the infrastructure and bureaucracy that form the basis of the modern state. British colonies fared much better generally.

This involvement came at the price of accepting permanent settlers into African nations, which some nations rejected violently (to their cost).

There are many people who would argue that colonialism injured Africa and yet I am inclined to think otherwise. Without doubt, the small tribal groupings would have had a very hard time coping with the global economy that was destined to envelope the rest of the world. Africans, had they stayed in the condition they were in prior to the arrival of the European colonizers, would have existed in a precarious position. They would not have been educated (in the usual meaning of the word) and they would have been less plugged into the world economy than they are now. These two factors are ingredients for perpetual poverty and subservience

Your argument, as I have pointed out, is oversimplified. There are many examples where a people were colonized, and are still in perpetual poverty and subservience with no education or hope. There are people who benefited from being colonized and there are people who rightfully resent the imposition on their freedom and who rightfully believe that they were much better capable of running their own affairs then people dedicated to only their own benefit.

Even though colonization caused untold pain to the Africans, it forced the people of Africa into fairly strong grouping from which their advancement could be played out

Unfortunately that grouping has also caused much of the misery that you see in Africa today.

It is true that it is not playing out very smoothly in many part of Africa but there are some signs that the Africans nations are maturing (emerging democracy and stability) and this means that the once highly vulnerable tribal groups are now ensconced in larger national identities that are less vulnerable and more likely to provide a context of cultural and economic success.

Or they are involved in brutal civil wars against other tribal groups for control of the larger national identity because the borders imposed by their colonizers ignored local realpolitic?

The questions arises: Would Africans have formed these national identities without the help of Europeans?

Africans did form national identities without Europeans. Some African groups that hadn't would have, others would have failed and been conquered and colonized anyway. Would it have been less bloody and painful? Probable not. Would Africa have been a better or worse place? We’ll never know, so it no use crying now.

Is colonialism a stick used to beat ignorant guilty liberals with? None better.

Update: A pretty lively discussion. Missed it at the time.

Why Blog

On Lesotho tells us why he blogs;

There shouldn't be any shouting about any aspect of blogging. I try to be firm and truthful, even where I'm clearly not being objective. I think there's a difference between fibbing and being subjective, and I think I can remain subjective but truthful. "I hate the son of a bitch; he broke my leg" could be truthful, although it's clearly not very objective. I obviously dislike the political party under which an attempt was made on my father's life, my brother and my nephew were killed, my father was thrown in jail, many Basotho were tortured, some killed, the country's scant resources were squandered or left to rot, and my family was later forced to flee Lesotho. Wouldn't you? Blogging has helped me, together with poetry and my family, to remain cool and to get rid of the damned demons that just kept nagging and nagging and tugging at my soul. I was able to remain sane. I can't forget. I can forgive.

Monday, February 9

Funny season

Its election time in SA (14th of April). If you're an independent voter, and your shopping around for a party to support, what are your options? Lets hypothetically assume your colour blind, green and moved here recently, just to try to make this all objective.

Well, first up is the ANC. This is the oldest party in the country, chiefly responsible for the happy state of affairs that we find ourselves in. Economic policies have generally been excellent, but they've dropped the ball on a few issues, such as AIDS and Zimbabwe. They're looking to keep their two thirds majority, allowing them to bloody well do what they please. Being colourblind you wont notice that almost everyone around you is black, but then they shouldn't care to much that you're green either.

The ANC have a few boils hanging around called the SACP, COSATU and the NNP, who are riding their coat tails. COSATU is really a trade union and shouldnt really be affiliated to goverment anyway. Shame on them! The SACP is the corpse that been sitting at the table for a while now. Everyone been to polite to mention that he is starting to smell however, since he was such a good fellow back in the days. The NNP are alive and kicking, but they smell even worse then the corpse. Everyone tells them they smell, but they're so shameless they dont care.

The main opposition. The DA is the inheritors of the liberal white traditions of this country. Having valiantly opposed apartheid, they watched as the Nats gave it all to the ANC without so much as a "by your leave". They are now busy valiantly opposing the current government, even when they agree with them. They are looking to stop the ANC from achieving a two thirds majority, and they don't care whose ass they have to kiss to do it. The party is still mostly white, but being green you'll be sure to be pushed all the way to the front for the photo shoot.

The IFP. Zulu nationalists, they have trouble attracting anyone except Zulus. Unless your a nationalist in which case you might support them purely for the cause of nationalism. Being green, supporting nationalism would probable be a bad idea. Support has been waning in recent years. Whether this is due to the fact that the Zulu heartland is being eaten alive by the AIDS epidemic, or Zulus don't care to be ruled by tribal chiefs anymore nobody knows. Still, you might have fun at their rallies. They throw the best parties.

The Freedom front are the inheritors of the conservative white Afrikaner traditions. That said, they've been surprisingly cooperative in recent years. They've pretty much given up on the idea of a separate bantustan for themselves, probable when they realized they would not want to move there anyway. They're for Afrikaners, but that's about it. You'll probable be welcome at the braais, but expect other people to look at you funny.

The PAC are the inheritors of just about everything that is wrong with african politics. Its hard to think if anything that's good to say. You wont be welcome, unless you've got money, in which case they'll overlook your condition and call you comrade anyway. They live in a country called Azania, so finding them might be a problem though.

Praticia de Lille. Late of the PAC, she made her name poking fun at all the fat cats in government. When she realized she had ten times more support then the PAC, she dumped them and started her own party. The PAC is bitter about this, but their hatemail gets dumped on the side of the road as the post office cant find Azania.

Ahh, Choices. OK, ok, not really. The real election was last year at the ANC congress. That's when all the ANC members decided who was going to run this country. We just get to decide whether to give the ANC sole mandate for everything, or just most things. (I know, if only I'd told you this last year.)

Me, I like to watch "parliament live", so I'm voting to only give them power over most thing. The only choice now is whose voice do you want to hear going of like a Maltese poodle for the next 5 years.

The known unknown

Thabo Mbeki gave an interview on SABC 2 last night. I was only able to watch for a brief period, but what he said caught my attention. He laid out the program by which all data on deaths the government has collected since 1996 is being analyzed, so that the government will finally "know" how many people are dying where in South Africa, and that it can respond accordingly. He emphasized that this is the first time that such a thing is being done in South Africa, and that once it has been done we will be much more able to tackle our health issues.

I thought this to be an eminently reasonable proposition. I've always been a sucker for Thabo. He doesn't always talk sense, but he always seems to be going somewhere. It feels as if any minute something profound will be said. Only it never seems to happen, and when it does it is almost always an anti-climax.

Something bothered me about this however. I wasn't sure what it was at the time. Reading this post by the Belmont Club, it became obvious however. Government, and people in general, must always respond to situations without complete knowledge of the state of affairs. Thabos wish to "know" what has happened is commendable, but to not act in the face of a tragedy such as AIDS for lack of "complete" knowledge is unforgivable for a head of state. How many people are going to die because Thabo did not know?

To lead is to act without knowing what the perfect course will be. It is to act without having total understanding of a situation. To wait until such a time as when you have complete understanding, at the cost of so many lives, is the failure of leadership.

Friday, February 6

Cape Town

Went to Clifton beach for a picnic last night. (The sun is setting around 8 these days). Havent been there for a number of years, and yup, its still very pretty, completely overrun by well heeled yuppy scum and parking is still a bitch.

Parking fines are around R150 a shot, compared with between R30 and R60 elsewhere in the province. Given property prices its still probally cheaper to just pay the fine every day then to rent a parking spot. (Want to buy a 100 square meter shack by the sea, sans parking, for 12 million rand? This is the place.)

Might go back soon if the weather holds out as it has. Makes a nice change from Camps bay or Blouberg strand. My favourite beaches are Boulders and Lundudno, but theyre a bit on the far side to go to after work.

Boulders is absolutely stunning. Its very small, you have to pay R20 entrance fee as its a nature reserve, and gets busy over weekends. What makes it so nice is the fact that its so sheltered by the boulders, warming up the water. There is a penguin colony right next door so their are always a few penguins enjoying the warm water with you, and if youre willing to climb a few boulders you can always find a secluded spot.

Went to see "Lost in Translation", eat some Ice cream and look at the tourists at the Waterfront afterwards. Good movie.

Damm I love Cape Town.


Missed to post on this Wednesday, but Survivor started Teusday. Looks like its going to be pretty good again. (Hey, it combines two of my favorite things! Tropical paradise and Pirate talk!)

Still waiting for the South African version though. Now 'that' would be fun.

Thursday, February 5

With a name like Bongo?

Gabon president, Omar Bongo, tries to take a Peruvian beaty contestant as lover. Lover flees with help of Interpol. Peru's UN ambassador "expressed the Peruvian government's serious concern over the events". Bongo denies everything. News24 fires news editor for gross incompetance for missing this story. (via Fark)

F.W Who?

Andrew at Southern Cross has some very sensible comment on whether F.W de Klerks support will help the NNP in the upcoming general election. Money line,

The only consolation is that de Klerk's endorsement will make no difference, the NNP are still going to to get slaughtered at the polls. I expect the DA to receive the bulk of what remains of the NNPs support with the ANC taking the rest. I also wouldn't be surprised if the ANC win the Western Cape without the NNPs help, in which case Kortbroek can kiss his precious partnership goodbye.

Somehow I doubt that leaving politics to enjoy the good life with his mistress has endeared F.W to anybody. Also the fact that he supports the NNP isnt news. If he supported the DA, now that would be news. Ironically he led the NNP out of an alliance with the ANC as one of his last acts as leader. The only thing thats changed is that the NNP has failed as a political party in the new South Africa, and is scurrying around for cover.

Treating the symptoms

NGOs lick their lips in anticipaction as the NY Times waxes lyrical about how perfect the Zimbabawe medical system use to be (it wasnt), and in what a dismal state it is in now (still better then most).

The vultures are circling.

Wednesday, February 4


An expat returns to Kenya for his grandmothers funeral. Just scroll down.

Mental Acrobatics fisks him.

>Africa is a land of mystery and shadow but also one of promise and hope.
>I will return there soon. Anyone care to join me?

He is planning on coming back? God help us! I feel like paying him back the money he was robbed by those 20 drunk guys to stay where he is.

Harsh. He's from Canada, so you shouldn't expect miracles in one trip.

Frog Cool

NY Times reports on the endangered Gaint Bullfrog found in Gauteng. First time I've ever heard of it, but they sure would make an interesting Pizza topping.

Reports on our demise have been grossly overestimated

I reality check on the doom mongering that has been going round about the AIDS epidemic. I've doubted the accuracy of AIDS reporting before, now an article in the Spectator by Rian Malan confirms my doubts. (via Abiola, who seems to be saying that Rian Malan shouldn't be pushing this issue because it might be used by AIDS denyers?)

Tuesday, February 3

Nats Need People!

Murray questions whether the NNP 'really' would want the Death penalty brought back, with all it implies for our constitution. I question whether the NNP is even capable of realizing the implications of their political grandstanding. Luckily I doubt whether it is anything but grandstanding. The NNP is trying to desperately disassociate itself from the ANC. As the election nears, it faces the probable collapse of any semblance of support from the South African public.

About time too.

Rock Chick

Ive finally discovered Karen Zoids "Poles Apart" album. Ive missed the hype by about a year, but I understand what is was all about. Damm this chick rocks.

Grrr, now I got to decide. The Mullet shirt of the Album for my birthday?

Come and see Lions

Kenya has recently announced an impressive new marketing campaign to draw more tourists. Its a pretty slick production.

It can be seen here. If your interested in Africa, this is a must see!

IT is important

The Gauteng online project plans to install 25 computers in every school in the province. At a cost of around R400,000 per school, and with 2500 schools in Gauteng, the bill for this initiative will be more then 2.5 Billion Rand (Around 360 million US$).

Providing for installation of the hardware, software, education of the teachers, insurance of the computers and upkeep of the facilities this is a mammoth task. This is arguable the single largest investment in our education system ever, and if early reports are to be believed everyone is very impressed with the new classrooms and software.

Through the grapevine I've learnt of some of the difficulties associated with this project, and those are also just as impressive.

If a school has no suitable classroom, a classroom was to be built. If a school had no electricity, electricity was to be supplied. For insurance purposes, classroom had to burglar proofed and alarmed. Not only the windows, but the ceilings as well. Most Security companies don't provide armed response services to neighborhoods where these schools are found, so contracts were awarded on an all or nothing approach. You cover the schools in Alexandra, or you don't cover the schools anywhere else.

This did not deter our ever impressive crime syndicates however, and a pattern emerged of computers disappearing the day after they were installed. In one case installation of the computer was delayed a day, and when the team arrived the next morning they found that a hole had been knocked through one of the walls already. Luckily "inside jobs" is a well understood phenomenon in these parts.

The installation teams themselves were a problem as they refused to travel to some areas. Armed guards has to be organized to accompany them, but these would not be allowed to enter school ground however as by law, schools are gun free zones.

It seems that things have progresses successfully however, despite all these problems. A testament to the success of PPPs (Public Private Partnerships for those of you not used to SA govspeak. You cant very well call it capitalism if your a Marxist revolutionary party can you? What would the neighbours say!) and the ANC governments implementation policies.

If this investment will pay off will only be known in a few years time however as students who benefit from this project start to enter tertiary education and the job market. I'm certainly hopeful.

Monday, February 2

Comments are back, thanks to Haloscan.

Bribing Tokyo

The Iraqi Oil bribe scandal hit South Africa, but I don't think anyone is really paying it any attention. Tokyo Sexwale, named in the scandal, is a big wig in the ANC. He left the government to enter the more lucrative private sector a while back, and if the Iraqis were bribing him for political influence, they were pretty clueless as regards South African politics. President Mbeki stance on the Iraq war has been consistent (against), and I doubt Tokyo has much clout that high up.

If it can be shown he gave some of that money to the ANC it would be another story, but otherwise I think the opinion will be "So what?". Still, I look forward to seeing how this will pan out.

Behind every Mullet...

Mullets are cool! You will be converted.

Weekend trip to Heaven

Bains Kloof pass was built between 1848 and 1852 by Andrew Bain. It connects the Breede River valley with the Boland, but is not really used today as the N1, N2 and N7 highways carry all commercial traffic, and the route gives "winding mountain pass" a new meaning.

Tweede toll is a campsite maintained by the South African parks board, and it must be one of the most beautifully place in the world. Camping costs R20 a night (There are only about 20 sites, so booking is essential.) which gives you a site, a braaiplace and bathroom facilities, although you have to bring your own toilet paper.

Apart from the stunning scenery, Tweede toll boast numerous hiking trails, and the most divine swimming hole imaginable. Ask around about the underwater tunnels (There are two). You wont spot them on your own, but they are amazing if a bit scary the first time. It also has no cell phone reception, which makes it one of those rare places where relaxation is still possible.

Suntan lotion is a must, Beer is optional but recommended.

Update: Found some pictures!

Cool idea! A Map of where Ive been.

create your own visited country map
or check out these Google Hacks.

Cooler Idea, a map of where I want to go!

create your own visited country map
or check out these Google Hacks.

South Africa, Egypt, Mozambique and Thailand all make it back on the list. Hey, I love South Africa and theres plenty I havent seen yet! The others because I didnt get to spend nearly enough time there when I went.